Dan Tehan

University research funding and international student numbers rose, and will likely fall, together

Australia’s universities face  multi-billion dollar annual budget shortfalls over the next few years. Fewer international student arrivals are the single biggest cause of falling revenues. In 2018 26 per cent of university revenue came from international students, up from just 3 per cent in 1990.

Universities were warned about relying financially on international students. Since 2017, for example, the NSW Auditor-General has regularly commented  that NSW universities are highly exposed to international students, especially from China. The Auditor-General’s concerns were ignored. NSW Chinese higher education enrolments increased by 25 per cent between 2017 and 2019.

We need to ask why universities took these risks.

Government funding levels

A common belief  in university constituencies is that the government cuts going back to the 1990s forced universities to find other revenue.

Historical funding evidence suggests a short-to-medium term relationship between university income sources; that if one declines university leaders look for another. Universities have significant expenses budgeted for current and future years. Raising revenue is less painful than cutting spending.

Dips in expected Commonwealth revenue sent vice-chancellors looking for replacement income. A huge increase in globally mobile students this century, especially from China and India, provided a substitute revenue source. The recent push for JobKeeper support as international student fee income dropped is the same dynamic operating in the other direction.

But the sector narrative of continuing government funding cuts is only sometimes true. Teaching subsidies were frozen from 2018, but after a decade of strong growth. Since 2001, total revenue for Commonwealth support students has grown by 165 per cent in real terms. Although students pay more of their educational costs than previously, total public subsidies for teaching went up by 145 per cent.

International student numbers fell for a few years during this public funding boom. But this decline was not a university strategy.  It was a demand-side dip caused by changes in visa rules, a high Australian dollar, and negative publicity in India about crimes against Indian students. After these factors faded, international student enrolment growth resumed and continued until COVID-19 intervened.

The separation of teaching and research funding

Although domestic student funding policies intermittently trigger added recruitment of international students, research funding policies are a more significant factor. While Commonwealth research spending occasionally falls, as it has in recent years, the structure of research funding is a problem as well as the amount.

Over the last 30 years Commonwealth research funding has changed in important ways. The government phased out an overall block grant for teaching and research, which universities could spend according to their own priorities. Instead, teaching and research funding were separated.  If Education Minister Dan Tehan’s reforms receive Senate approval it will be the final divorce between public teaching and research funding.

This separation means that universities are publicly funded for teaching and research based on largely different criteria. For teaching, student numbers drive funding, while research is principally funded according to indicators of previous research success.

Teaching-research academic roles

The problem for universities is that combined teaching and research academic employment, still the single most common role for academics who are not casually employed, assumes a link between teaching and research funding. That is how the same person can be funded to undertake both activities.

In reality, however, apart from money that would be lost in the Tehan reforms, no links remain between undergraduate teaching and research public funding at the university, faculty, department or individual academic level.

The funding logic is that academic employment should be specialised, and indeed we have seen a rise of research-only and teaching-only staff. But teaching-only positions are resisted by academic staff and their union. This trend towards specialisation would have been much greater, except that international students, by typically paying fees well in excess of teaching costs, partially restored what three decades of public policy had worn away, a funding connection between teaching and research.

With financial surpluses on both international and domestic teaching set to take big hits at the same time it is not just the total number of academic jobs in jeopardy. It is the very nature of future academic employment.

Part-funded research grants

In addition to being separated from teaching, research funding was itself sub-divided into competitive project grants, mainly from the Australian Research Council and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and block grants which universities could spend on research-related activities.

Competitive project grants are typically only part-funded, on the assumption that block grants cover other costs. The problem is that research block grants are too low to meet all the costs associated with competitive grants. This means that although competitive project grants bring prestige and additional resources to winning universities, they generate more expenditure than revenue.

Again, profits on international students, by financing part-funded research projects, have helped maintain research practices that might not otherwise have been viable.

Research rankings

Structural changes in research funding have driven universities to recruit international students. But these explanations on their own don’t fully explain the massive increase in research expenditure this century. It nearly tripled in real terms, fueling a similarly large growth in research outputs.

Research rankings have produced an obsession in universities with maintaining and improving their positions. Because many universities around the world want to be in the global top 100 universities simply doing good research is not enough. Universities need rapid increases in both the quantity and quality of research.  It is not coincidence that the Group of Eight universities,  which have the most ambitious rankings goals, ended up most exposed to the international student market.

The future of international education

Australian universities still have a credible optimistic scenario of an international student market recovery starting next year. Although due to the COVID-19 recession fewer students can afford to study overseas at least in the short term, market surveys show that strong student interest remains. If major competitors, such as the UK and USA, cannot contain COVID-19 Australia may take an expanded share of 2021’s commencing international students.

But more pessimistic scenarios are also possible. Entry to Australia may still be restricted in early 2021, especially for students from countries where COVID-19 is not under control. A deteriorating political relationship with China could see a decline in or even the end of our biggest source market. Before COVID-19 highlighted financial risks, a long list of other concerns had been raised about international students, including academic integrity issues, the influence of the Chinese Communist Party, student exploitation, and migration. One or more of these could lead to university decisions, market reactions or regulatory changes that affect student numbers.

If a pessimistic scenario eventuates, the extraordinary increase in Australia university research this century will turn into a dramatic fall in research activity. Many thousands of academic jobs will be lost.

A large international student program is necessary for Australia’s universities. Government spending might increase but it will never match university ambitions. But hubris crept in through an over-emphasis on rankings, encouraging the risk-taking the NSW Auditor-General repeatedly warned against. Some moderation in the international education market is in everyone’s long-term interests.

Andrew Norton is Professor in the Practice of Higher Education Policy at the Centre for Social Research and Methods at the Australian National University. This article draws on a series of blog posts on how Australian universities became reliant on international students. Andrew is on Twitter @andrewjnorton

Over 180 literacy educators voice their concerns over Dan Tehan’s expert task force on reading

This open letter voices the concerns of over 180 literacy educators on the composition (and implied terms of reference) of the “expert task force” created to advise the Australian Government on the teaching of phonics and reading.

In his press release of 15th October 2019, the Federal Minister for Education, the Honourable Dan Tehan, announced he had asked the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) to create an expert task force to do two things:

  • provide AITSL with advice on the inclusion of phonics in national accreditation standards for Initial Teacher Education (ITE); and
  • advise on how to ensure graduate teachers can teach the fundamentals of literacy through learning how to teach the five essential elements of literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary development, reading fluency, comprehension.

Since the press release, further details have emerged about the function of the task force, which includes giving advice and resources to academics in ITE, informing them how to teach phonics and early reading.

The expert task force comprises:

  • Jennifer Buckingham – an AITSL board member, former researcher at the Centre for Independent Studies (CIS) and Strategic Director for MultiLit (a provider of commercial synthetic phonic programs);
  • Lorraine Hammond – Associate Professor at Edith Cowan University, teaching courses in Direct Instruction, and President of Learning Difficulties Australia; 
  • Robyn Cox – Associate Professor at the Australian Catholic University and President of the Primary English Teachers Association of Australia (PETAA).  

The signatories of this letter have profound concerns about the task force and its functions for the following reasons:

Erroneous assumptions and narrow focus

  • the Minister’s announcement is premised on an erroneous assumption, which is that phonics is not being taught in schools and universities;
  • although five essential elements of reading are mentioned, the discourse appears to privilege phonics. In his press release the Minister mentioned phonics six times, reading twice and comprehension once, which implies the remit of the task force will be narrowly focused.
  • literacy education consists of more than the five essential elements referred to in the Ministerial press release.
  • the emphasis on reading and phonics appears to privilege one mode of language over others (e.g. speaking and listening, writing, viewing) and privileges only one aspect of reading (phonics), when NAPLAN data demonstrates that writing and higher order comprehension in upper primary and secondary years require attention.  

Composition of the expert panel (task force)

  • The educational perspectives represented in the task force membership are not balanced.
  • Two members of the task force have highlighted their bias in media releases in which they claim Initial Teacher Education providers have not taught students how to teach phonics.
  • One member of the task force has a vested interest in synthetic phonics, as a senior employee at MultiLit. We consider this may constitute a conflict of interest.
  • One member of the task force is an advocate of Direct Instruction, which may result in advice that privileges narrowly framed teaching methods.
  • One member of the task force has links with a conservative think tank (CIS), which brings into question the political neutrality of the task force.

Initial Teacher Education provider viewpoint and concerns

  • University Initial Teacher Education courses that are accredited by AITSL already must meet both the AITSL Program Standards, AECEQA and the Australian National Curriculum and have evidence of meeting the Graduate Teacher Standards.
  • The Australian National Curriculum includes phonics and the five essential elements of literacy.
  • Academics teaching into Initial Teacher Education programs/courses have both authentic classroom experience and high-level qualifications in the field, with many holding a PhD.
  • The imposition of narrowly prescribed methods, by an external body, is not conducive to professional dialogue.

As a collective we ask our Australian Education Minister, Dan Tehan, to consider the following as a constructive way forward:

  • review the composition of the task force with a lens of expertise in child/adolescent language and literacy development to include experienced practitioners who represent a broader spectrum of pedagogical approaches to teaching oracy, reading, writing and visual literacy;
  • minimise the potential possible perceived conflicts of interest;
  • work collectively with the various State and Territory Regulators of Initial Teacher Education programs to review the evidence presented by each Higher Education provider as part of the accreditation process;
  • acknowledge the work currently undertaken by all Higher Education providers who have nationally accredited Initial Teacher Education programs approved by AITSL;
  • restore confidence within the community about the quality of the Initial Teacher Education programs, that they are accredited, and quality assurance has been undertaken as part of the accreditation process.

The future

As a collective we share the minister’s views and goals regarding the enhancement of children’s literacy. We acknowledge the diversity of the school population and the need for our initial teacher educators to be able to differentiate the curriculum.

We also acknowledge that the role of a Graduate Teacher, although classroom ready, is indeed only at the Graduate level and that there is a need for all state and territory Ministers of Education to be committed to ensuring the continued professional development of graduate teachers as part of the professional standards as articulated by the Australian Institute of Teaching and School leadership.

Kind regards,

180+ concerned literacy educators
(Names attached) 

Dr         Helen Adam                 Senior Lecturer Literacy and Course Coordinator

Dr         Misty Adoniou              Associate Professor, University of Canberra

Dr         Jennifer Alford            Senior Lecturer, English as a Second Language and Literacy Learning

Prof      JoBeth Allen                 Professor Emeritus, Language and Literacy Education, University of  Georgia. International Reading Hall of Fame.

Prof      Richard Allington      Professor Emeritus, University of Tennessee.  International Reading Hall of  Fame.

Dr         John Andrews               Curriculum Advisor, Senior Curriculum Advisor Education Department of Victoria; Author; classroom teacher (retired)

            Roger Atkinson             Co-editor, Issues in Educational Research

Dr         Glenn Auld                    Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Peninsula Campus, Monash University

Prof      Caroline Barrett-Pugh   Early Childhood Studies

Dr         Pam Bartholomaeus      Lecturer, Rural Education and Literacy Coordinator of Secondary Initial Teacher Education Programs, College of Edn, Psychology & Social Work

            Wendy Bean                 Literacy Consultant, ALEA Principal Fellow. 

Dr         Eve Bearne                   Formerly University of Cambridge

Prof      William Bintz              Professor of Teaching and Learning, Kent State University

            Faye Bolton                  Literacy Consultant, Melbourne.

            Georgina Bonzos          Teacher (retired)

            Fiona Boylan                 Lecturer, Early Childhood Studies

            Elizabeth Broad            International Convenor, United Kingdom Literacy Association

Prof      Greg Brooks                 Emeritus Professor of Education, University of Sheffied U.K. International Reading Hall of Fame.

Dr         Nikki Brunker                School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney

            Lisa Burman                 Education Consultant, author

Prof      Cathy Burnett               Professor of Literacy and Education, Sheffield Hallam University

            Lynne Bury                   Ph.D. candidate, Literacy Consultant, Melbourne.

Dr         Glenda Cain                 Senior Lecturer; Literacy Coordinator

            Phillip Callen                 Education Consultant, SA

            Sharon Callen               Education Consultant, SA

Dr         Jon Callow                   Senior Lecturer, University of Sydney

Prof      Brian Cambourne AM    Principal Fellow, University of Wollongong.  International Reading Hall of Fame.

            Terri Campbell              Literacy Consultant, Director Campbell Consultancy

            Kelly Carabott               Assistant Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Monash University.

Dr         Liz Chamberlain Senior Lecturer in Education

Dr         Denise Chapman          Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Monash University.

            Helen Chatto                Primary School Principal  

Dr         Julian Chen                  Senior Lecturer

            Keay Cobbin                 Education Consultant

            Robyn Coleston            Education Consultant, New York

Prof      Barbara  Comber       Research Professor, School of Education, University of SA. International Reading Hall of Fame

Prof      Phillip Cormack         Adjunct Research Associate Professor, University of SA

            Christine Cougan          Teacher

            David Crawford             Former English teacher

Prof      Ken Cruikshank            School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney

Prof      Wendy Cumming-Potvin      Associate Professor

Narelle Daffurn      Sessional academic, PhD Candidate; MEd Learning Support – Reading Difficulties. Experienced Senior Teacher.

Prof      Susan Davis                  Central Queensland University

            A.J. Dempster               Master Teacher, ACT

Dr         Michael Dilena              Formerly Director, Learning Language and Literacy Research Centre, University of SA and Hong Kong Institute of Education.  Now University of  Hong Kong.

Dr         Madeleine Dobson        Lecturer and Course Coordinator of Early Childhood

Prof      Henrietta Dombey         Professor Emeritus, University of Brighton, UK. International Reading Hall of Fame.

Dr         Clare Dowdell               University of Plymouth, UK

Dr         Jennie Duke                  Sessional Academic and Inclusive Education Consultant

Prof      Carole Edelsky              Professor Emerita, Arizona State University

Prof      Warwick Elley               Emeritus Professor of Education, University of Canterbury, NZ

            Bronwyn Elliott             

Prof      Marie Emmitt                Emeritus Professor Australian Catholic University

Dr         Angela  Evangelinou-Yiannakis  Lecturer and Honorary Research Fellow

Prof      Robyn Ewing                Professor Emerita Robyn Ewing, Sydney School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney.

Prof      Beryl Exley                    Course Convenor, ALEA Life Member. 

            John Farvis                   Literacy Consultant, New York

Dr         Julie Faulkner               Senior Lecturer, Monash University.

            Judith Fellowes             Reading Recovery Tutor, Victoria

            Janet  Fellowes             Language and Literacy Consultant

            Julie Fitzpatrick             Teacher

Prof      Bev Flückiger                Professor in Education, Griffith University

Prof      Alan Flurkey                  Professor of Literacy Studies, Chair Dept of Specialized Programs in Education, Hofstra University, New York.

            Narelle  Furminger         Classroom teacher; literacy leader.

Prof      Susanne Gannon          Associate Professor, Western Sydney University

Dr         Paul Gardner                Senior Lecturer, Literacy;  UK Literacy Association Ambassador for Australia.

Prof      Robyn Gibson               Associate Professor, School of Education and Social Work, University of  Sydney

            Shani Gill                      Teacher

           Libby Gleeson AM         Writer

Prof      Yetta Goodman            Regents Professor, Emerita, University of Arizona; Past President International Reading Association; Board Member of other major professional literacy organisations.

Prof      Kenneth Goodman        Professor Emeritus, College of Education, University of Arizona; Past President of National Council of Teachers of English;  Board Member of other major professional literacy organisations.

Dr         Deborah Goodman       Professor of Literacy Studies, Hofstra University, NY. 

            Mardi Gorman              Literacy Consultant; PETAA Board Member

Dr         Alison Grove O’Grady   Program Director Combine Degrees, University of Sydney.

            Patrick  Hampton          Primary Program Coordinator

Prof      Jane Hansen                 Professor Emeritus University of Virginia.  Member of Reading Hall of Fame.

Prof      Colin Harrison              Emeritus Professor of Literacy Studies in Education, University of Nottingham.  Past President, United Kingdom Literacy Association. Member of Reading Hall of Fame. 

Prof      Jerome Harste              Distinguished Professor, Culture, Literacy and Language Education, Indiana University.  Member of Reading Hall of Fame.

Dawn Haynes Literacy consultant

            Christina Holly              Lecturer, Diversity and Inclusion, Primary and Secondary Education           

Dr         Jessica Holloway          DECRA Research Fellow, Australian Research Council, Faculty of Arts and Education, Deakin University

            David Hornsby              Literacy Consultant, ALEA Principal Fellow, author, ex-principal.

            Penny Hutton                Session Lecturer University of Sydney; Professional Learning Consultant PETAA

            Danny Hyndman           Education Consultant

Prof      Jenny Jay                     Associate Professor for Early Childhood Studies

Prof      Moss    Julianne            Professor Julianne Moss, Deakin University

Dr Anne Keary Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Monash University

            Olivia    Karaolis            University of Sydney

            Katrina Kemp               President, Australian Literacy Educators Association, Sydney North

            Tony Kennedy               teacher 

            Bushra Khateeb            Deputy Head of Primary; Primary Curriculum Coordinator, Islamic College of Melbourne

Dr         Lisbeth Kitson               Lecturer, English and Literacy Education, Griffith University 

Dr         Bree Kitt                       Lecturer, Language and Literacy, School of Education and the Arts, CQU.

A.Prof   Marianne Knaus            Associate Dean, Early Childhood Studies, School of Education, Edith Cowan University

            Barbara Kneebone        Primary teacher (retired)

Prof      Stephen Krashen          Professor Emeritus, University of Southern California

            Margrete Lamond         PhD candidate, Monash University

Dr         Gloria   Latham             Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Sydney; former Literacy lecturer, RMIT University

Prof      Carol Lauritzen            Professor Emerita of Education, Eastern Oregon University

            Joy Lawn                      Freelance children’s literature expert

            Narissa Leung               Education Consultant 

            Alison Lockhart             Sydney School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney

Dr         Kaye Lowe                    Read4Success

            Janet  Lyon                   Secondary English teacher;  teacher of students diagnosed with dyslexia.

Prof      Mary Macken-Horarik    Associate Professor, Language and Literacy Education, Australian Catholic University

            Susan Mahar                Literacy Educator, Melbourne

            Tim Mahar                    Concerned teacher (retired)

Prof      Jackie Manuel               Associate Professor, School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney

Prof      Richard Mayer             Distinguished Professor, Cognition, Perception and Cognitive Neuroscience.

Dr         Clare McBeath              Publisher, Issues in Educational Research

Prof      Jill McClay                    Professor Emirata, University of Alberta

            Mary McDonald            Primary teacher (retired) 

Dr       Lorraine McDonald        Honorary Fellow, ACU; Literacy Consultant, PETAA/ALEA

Dr         Kelli McGraw                Lecturer, Queensland University of Technology.

Dr         Pam McIntyre              Author; honorary senior lecturer in literacy RMIT University, former lecturer in literacy at the University of Melbourne.

            Anne McNamara           Former Early Years and Primary Teacher, Ex-President ALEA, Curriculum Consultant ACT.

            Deb McPherson            Chief Education Officer, English, NSW Dept of Education (retired) Geringong, NSW.

Dr         Margaret Merga            Senior Lecturer

Dr         Richard Meyer              Regents’ Professor, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, University of New Mexico.

Prof      Kathy Mills                    Research Professor, Literacies and Digital Cultures, Institute for Learning Sciences and Teacher Education, Brisbane.

Prof      Julianne Moss               Deakin University

            M. Murphy                    Teacher

Dr         Amanda Niland             University of Sydney

            Karen Nociti                  Lecturer, Early Childhood Studies

Dr      Annemaree O’Brien       Lecturer, Language and Literacy Education, University of Melbourne

Dr         Joanne O’Mara             Associate Professor in Language, Literacy an Literacy Education

            J. Oksiss                      Teacher

            Alayne Ozturk               Senior Lecturer, Head of English, Kingston University

            Jo Padgham                 ALEA Principal Fellow, Fellow Australian Council Educational Leaders. ACT

Prof      Judy Parr                      Professor of Education

            Sandra Parsons            Lecturer, PhD Candidate, School of Education, Edith Cowan University.

            Carol Pearce                 Literacy Consultant, Junior Primary Principal (retired), University tutor (Language and Literacy, English)

Dr         John Pollock                 Formally Associate Professor of Language and Literacy, RMIT

Dr         Debbie Powell              Associate Professor Emerita, Language and Literacy, University of Northern Colorado, Wilmington

Dr         Jacqualine Rankine       Curriculum Development;  Teacher (retired)

            Reading Recovery         Dr Catheryn Sale


            David Reedy                 Literacy Consultant

Dr         Jennifer Rennie             Senior Lecturer, Acting Professor, Monash University; Associate Editor Australian Journal of Language and Literacy.

            Denyse Ritchie              The THRASS Institute

            Amelia Ruscoe              Lecturer

Dr         Kathy Rushton              School of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney

            Jennifer Ryan                Teacher

Dr         Jo Ryan                        Senior Lecturer English and Literacy Education, Faculty of Education and Arts, ACU

Tim Ryan Former early years literacy teacher; Language and Learning in the Middle Years tutor; Principal; New York based educational consultant

Dr         Carmel Sandiford         Senior Lecturer, Language and Literacy Education, Melbourne Graduate School of Education. 

Dr         John Saunders              Honorary Associate, University of Sydney; Director of Education & Community Partnerships, Sydney Theatre Company.

            Yvonne Sawers             Senior Lecturer, Coordinator Primary Program

            Johanna Scott              Teacher (retired); Educational Publisher

Prof      Janet Scull                    Associate Professor, Associate Dean Education, Monash University

            Jan Senior                    Lecturer, Literacy Education, RMIT;  Literacy Consultant.

Dr         Cheryl  Semple             Lecturer, Literacy Education, RMIT (retired) 

Dr         Steve Shann                 Adjunct Assistant Professor, Secondary Literacy, University of Canberra.

            Julie Shepherd              Literacy consultant, Victorian State Director ALEA 

Prof      Runar Sigporssan         Professor of Education

Dr         Sharyn  Silver                Formerly Senior Lecturer English/Literacy ACU.  17 years in NSW DET in senior positions.

Prof      Michele Simons            Professor Michele Simons, Dean of Education, Western Sydney University.

Prof      Alyson Simpson            Professor Alyson Simpson, Potts Point, NSW.

            Diane Snowball             Literacy Consultant, Past-President ALEA

            Brenda Stewart             South Coast, NSW.

Prof      Madonna Stinson          Associate Professor, School of Education and Professional Studies, Griffith University

            Deb Sukarna                 Literacy Consultant, ex-principal.

            Michelle Tham              Teacher

Dr Angela Thomas Senior Lecturer in English Education, University of Tasmania

Dr         Anne Thwaite                Lecturer, Language Education

Lyn Tonkin Former Teacher and Principal; Teacher educator at UniSA in Language and Literacy Education; Member and Executive Member of ALEA; Literacy Consultant Singapore, PNG, Philippines and Solomon Islands.

            Christine Topfer            Australian Literacy Educators’ Association, Principal Fellow.

Dr         Deborah Towns OAM    Academic researcher; teaching experience in primary, secondary and                                                     tertiary.

Dr         Eseta Tualaulelei           University of Southern Queensland

            Tracy Tunney                Classroom teacher

Dr         Jan Turbill                     FACE, University of Wollongong. International Reading Hall of Fame.

            Rita van Haren              ACTATE Executive Officer

Dr         Lisa van Leent              Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Queensland University of Technology.

Prof      Renate Valtin                International Reading Hall of Fame.  Berlin. 

Dr         Maureen Walsh             Previously Professor of Literacy Education, ACU; Honorary Professor, University of Sydney.

            Lorna Ward                   Independent Literacy Consultant

            Janelle  Warhurst          ALEA member

Dr         Craig Whitsed               Senior Lecturer, School of Education, Curtin University; Visiting Fellow University of Groningen.  

Dr         Sandra Wilde                Hunter College, City University of New York (retired)

            Lyn Wilkinson               Senior Lecturer, English, literacy and Language Arts, Flinders University for 25 years. 

            Stephen Willy                Education Consultant

            Cait Wilson                   Literacy Consultant   

            Lorraine Wilson             Literacy Consultant, author

Lesley WingJan Teacher (retired), Literacy Consultant

            Mary-Anne Wolpert       Affiliated Lecturer, University of Cambridge

Prof      Annette Woods             Faculty of Education, Queensland University of Technology

            Alan Wright                   Education Consultant, author

Dr         Katina Zammit              Deputy Dean / Senior Lecturer, English Pedagogy, Curriculum School of Education, Western Sydney University. 

            Roger Zubrinich            Former English teacher;  Lecturer;  Coordinator professional writing TAFESA; Former Advisor to South Australian Government ministers. 

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