Out-of-field teaching

What to do when our schools run out of the teachers they urgently need

When faced with a teacher shortage, often schools need to ‘make do’ and ask teachers to teach away from their area of expertise in order to staff classes. That’s called teaching out-of-field and sometimes teachers, put in that position, can feel unsupported and overwhelmed.

The issue of teaching ‘out-of-field’ persists in Australia and internationally –  and has for some time. Out-of-field teaching refers to when teachers teach subjects they are not ‘qualified’ (or specialised) to teach (Weldon, 2016; Hobbs), that is, they do not have the undergraduate study recognised by the state registration/accreditation body nor the teaching methods. 

The question of suitability of a teacher to teach a subject or group of students can be a tricky one in schools. Quality teaching can occur when teachers have gathered expertise over time to teach a subject even when they do not have the relevant ‘qualification’. However, teachers with qualifications or specialisations and a background in the latest teaching methods for the subject are more likely to provide quality teaching.

Faced with an inadequate teacher supply, how do schools address this problem?

In Victoria, the State Government has committed funds to the Secondary Science and Mathematics Initiative (SMSI). We at Deakin have been contracted to design and deliver graduate certificates in secondary mathematics and science. The courses are being delivered online because of COVID restrictions through intensives and offer a mix of content and discipline-specific pedagogy. Supports are provided for teachers as they are challenged to return to study and complete the course while continuing to teach in their schools.  

Teachers from Government schools who are teaching out-of-field in mathematics or science are funded to undertake the graduate certificates. This ‘upskills’ them, makes them qualified, and therefore no longer ‘out-of-field’ but ‘in-field’. 

Why are upskilling programs like the Victorian SMSI important?

1. Research shows that teaching is a ‘learning profession’, where teachers are constantly undergoing professional development, often want to be challenged to try new things by learning ‘on-the-job’ and want to have some agency as to how their career progresses (Hobbs, 2020). Research also shows that teachers who have a background in a subject often lead to better outcomes for their students (Shah, Richardson & Watt, 2020). Some research has shown quite negative impacts for some students and teachers when teachers are given teaching duties beyond their fields of expertise (Du Plessis, Gillies & Carrol, 2014). 

Teachers can feel as if they are in a holding pattern until they can teach what they are passionate about (Hobbs, 2020) and teacher confidence and expertise can be challenged. Students can feel unsupported, and student achievement can be negatively impacted.    

2. Teachers generally feel valued when they are remunerated and recognised for professional learning (Hobbs & Törner, 2019). It is essential funded Government initiatives, university programs, or subject association initiatives deliver outcomes for teachers and schools that make a difference in the classroom and in the professional lives of teachers. The SMSI will focus on contemporary science or mathematics pedagogy, knowledge and practice as integrated, and will be firmly based in teacher practice. The design of the courses and funding arrangements acknowledge the busy lives of teachers and attempts to support schools as they release their teachers. 

3. Upskilling programs specifically designed for out-of-field teachers are not common, although they are available at some universities (e.g., University of Melbourne [https://handbook.unimelb.edu.au/2021/courses/gc-mthed10], Queensland University of Technology [https://www.qut.edu.au/courses/graduate-certificate-in-education-stem-in-education]) and sometimes through professional associations as professional development programs. 

Often teachers receive no recognition or renumeration for undertaking additional qualifications. Therefore, there is little culture of formally upskilling by teachers in some states and territories. Also, research shows that teachers tend to prefer to undertake professional development in their in-field subject (Hobbs, Campbell, Delaney, Speldewinde and Lai, 2020).

The New South Wales teacher accreditation system is such that teachers gain approval to teach subjects when graduating from initial teacher education. These approvals can be updated as teachers undertake studies and meet the requirements for additional subjects. Victoria, however, has no similar mechanism as teachers are registered as ‘teachers’. As with other states and territories in Australia, teachers are required to undertake professional development to renew their registration, although most teachers will choose their in-field subject as the focus of this development. Thus, the value of the SMSI is that funding is provided for teachers to undertake the Graduate Certificate and schools are renumerated for having their teachers out of the classroom while studying. This incentive is needed for teachers to see that the benefits outweigh the costs.

How will a program like SMSI create change?

Two ways. 

  1. The first relates to the fact that the Victorian State Government (like the Tasmanian State Government in 2015) is funding teachers (especially from rural areas) to gain qualifications in out-of-field subjects. This illustrates that there is formal acknowledgement that out-of-field teaching occurs, that it needs to be attended to, and that schools and teachers need to be supported through funding in order to build the pedagogical and content-related expertise. The Victorian Government has applied this strategy with the STEM Catalyst program and the Primary Mathematics and Science Specialists (PMSS) program, illustrating a commitment to upskilling teachers in the ‘STEM’ areas [https://www.education.vic.gov.au/about/programs/learningdev/vicstem/Pages/schools.aspx].
  1. Secondly, such acknowledgement and commitment will have the effect of generating conversation around the ‘out-of-field’ issue more broadly. Whole of system engagement is required, including those responsible for setting policy, school leaders who enact policy, teacher/discipline/principal associations that inform policy and curriculum.  Additionally, teacher unions that represent and protect the rights of educators and school leaders, and universities and academics who provide teacher-ready candidates and support teachers and schools with professional development and research must be engaged.

Change can be created through a national conversation about:

  • system pressures and mechanisms for responding to the issue of teacher distribution, teacher supply and school leadership practices that lead to out-of-field teaching;
  • our expectations for our teachers and schools in terms to teacher ‘qualifications’ versus ‘experience’;
  • developing school practices that minimise the need for out-of-field teaching, and assesses and reduces the potential risk implicated in teaching out-of-field; 
  • how to present this issue to the public; and
  • the data needed to monitor who is teaching what and under what circumstances.

Ultimately, upskilling teachers is one response. The challenge now is for all relevant stakeholders to work together to develop strategies with coordinated actions that demonstrate how Victoria and Australia can lead the world in responding to this pervasive issue. 

Declaration: Deakin University has been contracted to provide the Graduate Certificates in science [https://www.deakin.edu.au/course/graduate-certificate-secondary-science] and mathematics  [https://www.deakin.edu.au/course/graduate-certificate-secondary-mathematics ] and will do so alongside a rich research program that will evaluate the participating teachers’ experiences throughout their qualification.

From left: Associate Professor Linda Hobbs is a Science and STEM educator and has researched in the area of out-of-field teaching for over 12 years. Professor Russell Tytler is Alfred Deakin Professor of Science Education at Deakin University, and has published widely on student and teacher learning, and interdisciplinarity in STEM. Dr Peta White is a science and environmental education senior lecturer at Deakin University with research interests including science and biology education; sustainability, climate change, and environmental education; and collaborative/activist research. Dr Jill Brown is a mathematics educator and researcher and Course Director of the Graduate Certificate Secondary Mathematics


Du Plessis, A. E., Gillies, R. M., & Carroll, A. (2014). Out-of-field teaching and professional development: A transnational investigation across Australia and South Africa. International Journal of Educational Research, 66, 90-102. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0883035514000457 

Hobbs, L. (2020). Learning to teach science out-of-field: A spatial-temporal experience. Journal of Science Teacher Education. Published online 29 Jan 2020 https://doi.org/10.1080/1046560X.2020.1718315 

Hobbs, L. & Quinn, F. (2020). Out-of-field teachers as learners: Influences on teacher perceived capacity and enjoyment over time. European Journal of Teacher Education, DOI: 10.1080/02619768.2020.1806230  Published online: 01 Sep 2020. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02619768.2020.1806230 

Hobbs, L. & Törner, G. (2019b). The out-of-field phenomenon: Synthesis and taking action. In L. Hobbs & G. Törner (Eds.), Examining the Phenomenon of “Teaching Out-of-field”: International Perspectives on Teaching as a Non-specialist (pp. 309-321). Dordrecht: Springer. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789811333651 

Shah, C., Richardson, P., Watt, H. (2020). Teaching ‘out of field’ in STEM subjects in Australia: Evidence from PISA 2015, GLO Discussion Paper, No. 511, Global Labor Organization (GLO), Essen. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/215639 

Out-of-field teaching is out of control in Australian schools. Here’s what’s happening

Assigning teachers to teach in positions outside their field of qualifications or expertise creates complex and multi-layered challenges, yet it is happening in many Australian schools.

I believe out-of-field teaching can affect the quality of teaching we provide in our schools, and the wellbeing of the students, teachers, parents and school leaders involved. So it is important to talk about what is happening and what we might do about the implications of this phenomenon.

The idea that ‘any good teacher can teach anything’ is harmful for the profession

The expectation that ‘any good teacher can teach anything’ harms the professional identity and image of teachers, their employment and the quality of our education systems. I see it as a misconception that condones out-of-field teaching without considering the sociocultural and educational implication of the practice. It also influences how this phenomenon is defined and the validity of statistical information regarding the out-of-field phenomenon, by helping to mask it.

If we are going to change policy around the out-of-field teaching practices in our schools we first need a clear idea of what is happening in this teaching and learning space.

What is out-of-field teaching?

I define out-of-field teaching as qualified teachers, (often highly qualified), assigned to teach subject fields or year levels for which they do not have appropriate or suitable qualifications; these qualifications include content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (subject specific methodology), or teaching expertise.

First, being suitably qualified for the specific subject areas, fields and/or year levels entails tertiary training at a ‘major’ or a ‘specialisation’ level. Second, developing ‘suitable expertise’ involves in-service professional learning and development for at least three years in the out-of-field subject area, field or year level as evidenced in research.

Teachers choose their field of tertiary study based on their interests and strengths

Prospective teachers mostly choose initial teacher education programs that relate to their motivation to make a difference and the choice of programs reflect their interest in a specific field or age range of students. The careful placement of teachers, our greatest educational resource, is therefore important if we want to build a strong, stable and high-quality teaching workforce.

How widespread is the practice of out-of-field teaching?

Research evidence shows 20 to 24 per cent of teachers in Western Australia work outside their field of qualification and 25 to 30 per cent of teachers in Victoria feel unqualified for their teaching position. Data from the Staff in Australia’s Schools (SiAS)  commissioned by the Australian government, based on research during 2006–07, 2010 and 2013, offers more evidence of the frequency of the out-of-field teaching phenomenon in Australia.

An Australian Council for Educational Research policy insights report says 21 per cent of mathematics teachers, 40 per cent of geography teachers, approximately 15 per cent of English and language teachers, and 21 per cent of teachers on average teach students in Years 7-10 while assigned outside their field of qualifications.

Out-of-field teaching practices affect interdisciplinary quality improvement efforts across the board in primary and secondary schools. The problem is evident in  Queensland where the former minister for education, Kate Jones’s, suggested recruiting talented mathematics and science teachers to Queensland from other countries. (Of course this would open up a whole range of new challenges for our schools and these teachers.)

The number of school students in Australia will increase by 26 per cent by 2022 yet student enrolments in teaching courses are decreasing, which is likely to exacerbate out-of-field placements. The problem will only get worse for students, teachers, parents and school leaders if we don’t act on finding a solution to effectively manage this phenomenon.

How we rely on the resilience of teachers

There is a culture in Australia of assigning beginning teachers, more often than experienced ones, to teach outside their qualifications or expertise (often without tailored support). Yet there are high expectations for their performance and their students’ achievements, which develop workforce concerns.

Teachers, however, are resilient and they want what is best for their students.  As I see it, out-of-field placements’ effect on quality education can be contained if these teachers’ interests and skills are considered and supported in their placements.

Listening to teachers who teach out-of -field

This raises the following questions: “Are the voices of out-of-field teachers and their school leaders being listened to?” and “Do educational policymakers, authorities and employers hear the valuable knowledge that these voices share?” If policymakers acknowledge out-of-field teachers’ lived experiences, and the impact it has on their teaching practices, this informs knowing. Knowing is fundamental for decision-making and tailored action.

The voices of parents and teachers on out-of-field teaching

Out-of-field realities in classrooms have implications for students, parents, teachers and employers. Parents are concerned about the demands and expectations that await their children if there are gaps in their development.

As one parent of a secondary school student shared during my research study, “Concepts do not get tied down―students struggle…; it is fundamental, the basis, because the next step follows on from the previous content, and so it continues…”

A secondary school out-of-field teacher verbalised the dilemmas, “I can’t convey information I know nothing about. I asked a colleague to do certain areas. It is part of her field, but for me, it is just a piece of work we need to read through.”

A qualified primary school teacher assigned to a pre-primary position shared the complex reality of not knowing how to approach initial literacy and numeracy development.

A beginning teacher assigned to teach a language without suitable qualifications said, “I told the principal, I cannot teach some of the subjects that were given to me. He [the principal] replied that anyone can teach the subjects on this level. He doesn’t care about it.” This teacher further added, “Children’s lack of discipline and respect for me is also a huge problem,” and explained lived experiences, “I made my worries known―nothing was done about it. I sometimes get angry and depressed…”

Expectations for out-of-field teachers to perform at the same level as their specialist colleagues or achieve the same results for their students leave out-of-field teachers, often already lacking much-needed support, disillusioned with teaching, feeling isolated, exposed, vulnerable and burnt-out.

The issues involving out–of–field teachers

Out-of-field teaching at primary and pre-primary level

Education systems, regulatory authorities, employers, school leaders and teachers are accountable for providing quality education in all subjects offered.  Yet at primary level and pre-primary there is a perception that out-of-field teaching has a less severe effect. Students’ learning and development can become vulnerable with out-of-field teaching, especially during initial literacy and numeracy building.

Teaching load out-of-field increases with more teachers leaving the profession

Concerningly, a teachers’ role in loco parentis (where they are always to act in the best interests of the child, as would a parent) has become taken-for-granted, while their professional load keeps increasing.

Teachers are leaving the profession at a concerning rate. Now around 53 per cent of individuals with a teaching degree do not currently work in education. In addition, the Australian government estimates that in 2014, 20 per cent of education graduates did not register as teachers. This increases out-of-field teaching and the likelihood of teachers being given large student cohorts, despite out-of-field assignments.

Professor Craig Craven, Vice-Chancellor and President of Australian Catholic University (ACU) stated that teachers matter and warned against looming teaching workforce problems stating, “There is a structural shortage and it’s going to get worse”. While university enrolments in education are declining, the demand for teachers is increasing which closely connects with out-of-field teaching. Out-of-field teaching practices impacts students’ achievements and their development. It further impacts employers’ efforts to develop a quality workforce that is strong and stable.

Beginner teachers are given out-of-field teaching positions

Research carried out for the Australian Council for Educational Research by Paul Weldon in 2016 indicates that beginning teachers (in their first five years) are the most likely to be placed in out-of-field teaching positions. At the same time a report by the Queensland College for Teachers suggested 8 to 50 per cent of beginning teachers leave teaching. The range of these figures is alarming.

Out-of-field teaching can compromise quality

The prevalence of the out-of-field phenomenon relates to teacher quality, the quality of teaching, school leadership styles, school improvement strategies, professional development opportunities, content and pedagogical content knowledge, classroom management strategies and the effective implementation of curricula and policies.

Out-of-field teachers admit unfamiliar subjects challenge their ability to offer deep or sound knowledge, comprising knowledge of a specific field, awareness of students’ needs, and teaching practices that reflect the schools’ cultures and communities.

An Australian educational director described the contrast between a suitably qualified and an out-of-field teacher: “The major difference is that the qualified teacher doesn’t have to think about the content,” adding that “It comes naturally, [and] any question a student might ask, any track that the lesson might take, a suitably qualified teacher is able to take the students down the path.” The director continued, “In the case of the unsuitably qualified teacher, as well as thinking about their classroom management, they have to think about the actual content that they’re teaching.” Then the director admitted, “This creates stresses in relation to the amount of preparation they have to do, but it also puts the effective management of the class at greater risk.”

Out-of-field teachers and their leaders report feeling isolated managing these implications.

How out-of-field teaching can affect our future

Students’ futures and their passion for certain subjects depend on their access to expert teachers who can bring these subjects to life. Research has shown that students, especially in Years 11 and 12, shy away from subjects when they perceive that the teacher lacks subject specific competencies or struggles to control the class.

Current global concerns about the quality of teacher education focus on the quality of initial teacher education (ITE), often overlooking beginning teachers’ workforce placements. Assigning beginning teachers to out-of-field positions impacts their preparedness for the workplace and hampers the development of their professional identities and affects their perceptions about the teaching profession.

Out-of-field teaching can be strategically managed

Research demonstrates out-of-field teaching success stories, in which school leaders are aware of the impact that their pedagogical accountability and pedagogical thoughtfulness have on the teaching and learning space. These school leaders showed a clear context-conscious understanding of what the out-of-field teaching phenomenon means for teachers in these positions and quality education.

A school principal in the Australian independent school sector explained the leadership team follows a philosophy of “growing people,” adding that “we all jumped in when we saw the [out-of-field beginning] teacher was struggling.” Leaders concerned about out-of-field teachers’ and their students’ wellbeing try to stay informed about what happens inside these classrooms while focussing on specific needs of teachers and students.

Out-of-field teaching practices are ongoing at the global level and it is certainly a problem here in Australia in metropolitan and remote schools.

However it is possible to address and confront some of the complex challenges for teachers and students when we share information on out-of-field teaching: the strategies, decisions, policies and actions we are undertaking to minimise the effect the phenomenon has on our students and teachers.

I believe targeted support embedded in connectedness, awareness, needs analysis, negotiation, leadership action and support can enhance the effective management of out-of-field teaching’s effects on our classrooms.

Anna E. du Plessis is a Research Fellow at Institute for Learning Science and Teacher Education at the Australian Catholic University. Anna has more than20 years’ experience in teaching across different international systems and curriculum frameworks.  She has been integral to the development, pilot and trial of the Graduate Teaching Performance Assessment (GTPA), an instrument designed to influence evidence-based and industry-informed changes to teacher education and tertiary-level curriculum development for professional experience of preservice teachers. Anna has two PhDs, focussed on the implications the out-of-field teaching phenomenon has for educational leadership, continuing professional development as well as the lived meaning of out-of-field teaching practices for quality education. Her current research focuses on beginning teachers, their school leaders and strategic rethinking of retention. Anna is on Twitter  @plessis_e

Anna’s book Out-of-Field Teaching Practices What Educational Leaders Need to Know is available on Springer.